Milestone Dentistry

& Facial Aesthetics

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Frequently Asked Questions

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The most typical queries patients have concerning dentistry and oral health problems are listed here. Please get in touch with our dental offices if you have any additional inquiries or would like to make an appointment; we look forward to hearing from you.

To view the response to a question, click on it below.

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Halitosis, or bad breath, can be an uncomfortable and unsightly condition. Even though many of us may not be aware of it, everyone occasionally has terrible breath, especially in the morning.

There are several causes of foul breath, but in healthy individuals, microbial deposits on the tongue, particularly the back of the tongue, are the main culprit. According to some research, simply cleaning the tongue can reduce foul breath by as much as 70%.


Practice good oral hygiene - Brush at least twice a day with an ADA approved fluoride toothpaste and toothbrush. To get rid of plaque and food particles from under the gum line and in between the teeth, floss every day. To clean the tongue and get to the back areas, use a brush or tongue scraper. Every two to three months, change your toothbrush. If you have detachable bridges or dentures, clean them well before putting them back in the morning.

See your dentist regularly - At least twice a year, get a checkup and cleaning. Your dentist would advise more regular checkups if you currently have or previously had periodontal disease.

Stop smoking/chewing tobacco - Find out from your dentist what they suggest to assist you kick the habit.

Drink water frequently - Water will keep your mouth wet and help wash any bacteria out of it.

Use mouthwash/rinses - Some over-the-counter products only offer a temporary fix to hide foul breath. Inquire with your dentist about antiseptic rinses that not only treat bad breath but also eradicate the bacteria responsible.

The root of foul breath is typically treatable by your dentist. Your dentist can suggest that you see your doctor if it turns out that your mouth is in good shape but that you still have persistent foul breath in order to identify the source of the smell and develop an effective treatment strategy.

Plaque and bacteria that lead to tooth disease can be reduced with the help of brushing and flossing.

Food particles, bacteria, and saliva form a film called plaque that adheres to the teeth and gums. Certain food particles are turned into acids by the bacteria in plaque, which leads to tooth decay. Additionally, plaque transforms into calculus (tartar) if it is not eliminated. Periodontal (gum) disease is brought on if plaque and calculus are not eliminated because they start to erode the bone and gum tissue.

Only routine brushing, flossing, and use of other dental tools can prevent the continuing production and growth of plaque.

Toothbrushing – Use an ADA-approved soft bristle brush and toothpaste to brush your teeth at least twice a day, preferably just before bed.

  • Be sure to always feel the bristles on the gums as you softly use a small, circular motion while brushing at a 45-degree angle to the gums.
  • Each tooth's biting, chewing, and inner surfaces should all be cleaned.
  • To clean the interior of your front teeth, use the brush's tip.
  • To freshen your breath and eradicate bacteria, brush your tongue.

Additionally advised are electric toothbrushes. They can effectively remove plaque and are simple to use. Simply place the bristles of the electric brush on your gums and teeth and allow the brush to do its job, several teeth at a time.

Flossing – Daily flossing - is the ideal method for cleaning in between teeth and behind the gum line. In addition to aiding in the cleaning of these crevices, flossing prevents plaque colonies from forming and harm to the bone, gums, and teeth.

  • With about 2 inches (5 cm) of floss remaining between the hands, wrap 12 to 16 inches (30 to 40 cm) of dental floss around your middle fingers.
  • Using a sawing motion, gently insert the floss between teeth while using your thumbs and forefingers to guide it.
  • Wrap the floss around each tooth and just below the gum line, forming a "C" shape. Cleaning the sides of each tooth requires gently moving the floss up and down.

Floss holders are advised if you have trouble using regular floss.

Rinsing - If you are unable to brush after meals, it's still necessary to rinse your mouth with water afterward. It's a good idea to discuss the suitability of any over-the-counter solution you use for rinsing with your dentist or dental hygienist.

At least twice a year should pass before you visit the dentist or a dental hygienist to have your teeth examined and cleaned.

In order to avoid dental issues and maintain the health of your teeth and gums, regular dental exams and cleanings are necessary. Your teeth are cleaned and examined for cavities during these sessions. To help diagnose, prevent, and maintain your dental health, several other items are also tested and monitored. These consist of:

  • Medical history review: Knowing the status of any current medical conditions, new medications, and illnesses, gives us insight to your overall health and also your dental health.
  • Examining diagnostic radiographs: is crucial for finding deterioration, cysts, malignancies, and bone loss. X-rays can also be used to locate the tooth and its root.
  • Oral cancer screening: Check the face, neck, lips, tongue, throat, tissues, and gums for any signs of oral cancer.
  • Gum disease evaluation: Check the gums and bone around the teeth for any signs of periodontal disease.
  • Examining tooth decay: Using specialized dental tools, we will examine every tooth surface for signs of decay.
  • Examination of existing restorations: Check current crowns, fillings, and other restorations that have already been placed.
  • Calculus removal: Calculus, also known as tartar, is the removal of hardened plaque that has been left on the tooth for a while and has been firmly affixed to the tooth surface. Calculus may only be removed with specialized dental tools since it forms above and below the gum line.
  • Plaque removal: Plaque is a sticky, nearly invisible film that develops on teeth. Saliva, food scraps, and active bacteria are all present in this expanding colony. Toxins (poisons) produced by the bacteria irritate and inflame the gums. Periodontal disease is a result of this inflammation.
  • Teeth polishing: Plaque and stains that are not eliminated by brushing and scaling are removed from teeth by polishing.
  • Recommendations for oral hygiene: Examine and suggest oral hygiene aids as necessary (electric dental brushes, specialized cleaning tools, fluorides, rinses, etc.).
  • Review your eating routine: Your oral health is greatly influenced by the way you eat.

As you can see, a thorough dental examination and cleaning entail much more than simply inspecting your teeth for cavities and polishing them. We are committed to providing you with the best possible care, and to do so will require regular check-ups and cleanings.

Unaware of their periodontal condition, four out of five persons! Because the condition is typically painless in its early stages, the majority of people are unaware of it. Contrary to tooth decay, which frequently causes discomfort, periodontal disease may exist without obvious signs. Periodontal and dental examinations should be scheduled on a regular basis to assist identify any periodontal issues.

Plaque, a whitish, clingy layer of bacteria, food particles, and saliva, forms on the teeth and gums and is the precursor to periodontal disease. Toxins (acids) produced by the bacteria irritate the gums and gradually erode the bone. Plaque won't be left behind to do harm if you brush and floss properly and on a frequent basis.

There are a number of additional variables that may raise the chance of getting periodontal disease in addition to poor oral hygiene, including:

  • Smoking or chewing tobacco – Plaque and tartar are more likely to develop on teeth of tobacco users than nonusers.
  • Certain tooth or appliance conditions – Crowded teeth, broken fillings that could trap plaque and bacteria, or bridges that no longer fit correctly.
  • Many medications – Oral contraceptives, blood pressure medications, cancer treatment pharmaceuticals, and steroids. Some drugs have side effects that cause the mouth to become dry and plaque to stick to the teeth and gums more readily.
  • Pregnancy, oral contraceptives, and puberty – May alter hormone levels, making gum tissue more susceptible to toxins produced by bacteria.
  • Systemic diseases – HIV/AIDS, diabetes, blood cell abnormalities, etc.
  • Genetics may play role – A more aggressive form of periodontitis may be more likely to affect some patients. Patients should pay close attention to their gums if there is a history of tooth loss in the family.

Signs and Symptoms of Periodontal Disease

  • Red and puffy gums – Gums shouldn't ever be swollen or inflamed.
  • Bleeding gums – Even when you use dental floss or brush vigorously, your gums shouldn't bleed.
  • Persistent bad breath – Caused by oral bacterial contamination.
  • New spacing between teeth – A result of bone loss.
  • Loose teeth – Additionally brought on by thinning periodontal fibers, which hold the tooth to the bone, or bone loss.
  • Pus around the teeth and gums – An indication that an infection is present.
  • Receding gums – Gum recession around a tooth.
  • Tenderness or Discomfort – The gums and teeth become irritated by plaque, calculus, and bacteria.

Regular dental checkups, a healthy diet, and good oral hygiene can all help lower your risk of getting periodontal disease, which is also brought on by bone loss or weakened periodontal fibers (fibers that attach the tooth to the bone).

With the exception of the spaces between the teeth, brushing our teeth eliminates food debris, plaque, and bacteria from all tooth surfaces. Sadly, our toothbrush can't get to these places because they are so vulnerable to decay and periodontal disease.

The greatest technique to clean in between teeth and under the gum line is with daily flossing. In addition to aiding in the cleaning of these crevices, flossing prevents plaque colonies from forming and harm to the bone, gums, and teeth.

A sticky, nearly invisible film known as plaque develops on the teeth. Saliva, food scraps, and active bacteria are all present in this expanding colony. Toxins (acids) produced by the bacteria irritate and inflame the gums in addition to causing cavities. Additionally, plaque above and below the gumline hardens into calculus (tartar) if it is not eliminated. This will aggravate and inflame the gums further and gradually erode the bone. Periodontal disease is starting to manifest in this way.

How to floss properly:

  • With about 2 inches (5 cm) of floss remaining between the hands, wrap 12 to 16 inches (30 to 40 cm) of dental floss around your middle fingers.
  • Using a sawing motion, gently insert the floss between teeth while using your thumbs and forefingers to guide it.
  • Wrap the floss around each tooth and just below the gum line, forming a "C" shape. Cleaning the sides of each tooth requires gently moving the floss up and down.

Floss holders are advised if you have trouble using regular floss.

You may maintain a healthy, attractive smile for the rest of your life by flossing every day!

Cosmetic dentistry procedures could give you a more attractive, self-assured smile if you're self-conscious about your teeth or want to improve your smile.

The last few years have seen a huge increase in the popularity of cosmetic dentistry, not only as a result of the numerous improvements in cosmetic dental procedures and materials now available, but also as a result of patients' increasing attention to their general health. This includes maintaining a whiter, brighter smile and practicing oral hygiene.

To make your teeth better and your smile more attractive, there are numerous cosmetic dental procedures accessible. Cosmetic dentistry procedures can drastically alter your smile depending on your individual needs, from repairing a single tooth to having a full mouth makeover. Consult your dentist to learn how cosmetic dentistry can help you achieve a more attractive and healthy smile.

Cosmetic Procedures:

  • Teeth Whitening: Teeth stained or discolored by aging, food, drink, and smoking can be made whiter by bleaching. It is also possible to bleach teeth that have darkened as a result of trauma or using specific medications, although the success rate will depend on how severely stained the teeth are.
  • Composite (tooth-colored) Fillings: In place of amalgam (silver) fillings, composite fillings—also referred to as "bonding"—are increasingly frequently utilized to treat cavities in teeth and to swap out faulty older fillings. The restoration of cracked, fractured, or discolored teeth can also be done with tooth-colored fillings. This kind of filling is also very helpful for closing gaps and covering vulnerable root surfaces that have become exposed due to gum recession.
  • Porcelain Veneers: Veneers are thin, tooth-colored shells that are created to order and glued to the fronts of teeth to provide a stunning, unique smile. They can aid in repairing or hiding teeth that are broken, stained, ill-shaped, or out of alignment. Veneers, as opposed to crowns, only require a small amount of tooth structure to be removed from the front of the tooth.
  • Porcelain Crowns (caps): A crown is a custom-made, tooth-colored covering that completely encases the tooth surface, returning it to its previous size and form. Teeth that cannot be repaired with fillings or other forms of restorations can be strengthened and protected with crowns. They are excellent for teeth with large, damaged, or shattered fillings as well as for teeth with severe decay.
  • Dental Implants: In order to replace one or more missing teeth, dental implants are artificial roots that are surgically inserted into the jaw. A patient can replace removable dental items with sturdy, stable, and long-lasting porcelain crowns, bridges, and dentures that are custom-made to fit and adhere to implants.
  • Orthodontics: Less visible and more effective brackets and wires are making straightening teeth with orthodontics much more appealing to adult patients. Additionally, in rare circumstances, teeth can be straightened without braces using custom-made, transparent, removable aligners.

Modern dentistry's advancements have made it possible for aesthetic procedures to let your smile sparkle!

Porcelain veneers are extremely thin, custom-made covers for the front of teeth that are made to resemble individual teeth. They are a very well-liked option for anyone looking to maintain or improve the attractiveness of their smile because they are quite sturdy and won't stain.

Following dental issues can be restored or treated with veneers:

  • Severely damaged or discolored teeth
  • Unwelcome or uneven gaps
  • Worn-down or broken teeth
  • Slightly crowded teeth
  • Crooked teeth
  • Too-small or too-large teeth

Typically, getting veneers needs two visits. An impression (mold) of your teeth is used to manufacture veneers, which are then made specifically for your unique smile at a dental laboratory (for shape and color).

Teeth are prepped by softly polishing and contouring the front surface of the teeth to accommodate the thin thickness of veneers, often with little or no anaesthetic. A specialized light may occasionally be used to establish and firm the bond once the veneers have been precisely placed and adhered to the tooth surface.

Veneers are a fantastic dental procedure that may significantly enhance your teeth and give you a radiant, natural-looking smile.

There are many products and techniques available to produce a whiter smile because teeth whitening has now overtaken other aesthetic concerns as the most common aesthetic issue among patients.

Professional teeth whitening, also known as bleaching, is a quick, painless dental procedure that can improve the appearance of your smile by lightening the shade of your natural tooth enamel. Although over-the-counter remedies are also accessible, the American Dental Association (ADA) may not have approved them since they are far less effective than expert therapies.

The tooth enamel's outer layer gradually erodes with age, exposing a deeper or yellower colour underneath. Our teeth's color is also influenced by the interior of the tooth, which can darken with age. In addition to smoking, drinking coffee, tea, and alcohol, tooth stains can also make our teeth appear dull and yellow. Some drugs, such tetracyclines, can cause tooth discoloration if used as a youngster.

If you think you might benefit from bleaching, it's crucial to have your dentist examine your teeth. Tetracycline and fluorosis stains can occasionally be challenging to remove with bleaching; as a result, your dentist can suggest veneers or crowns as an alternative. Before starting the bleaching process, it's vital to consider replacing any outdated fillings, crowns, etc. since teeth whitening only works on natural tooth enamel. Your dentist can match the new restorations to the shade of the freshly whitened teeth after the bleaching is complete.

Since teeth whitening is temporary, a touch-up may be required every few years to maintain your smile's radiance.


Home teeth whitening systems: The majority of at-home remedies come in the form of gel that is inserted into a mouthguard (tray) that is made specifically for you from a mold of your teeth. The trays can be worn overnight while you sleep or twice daily for about 30 minutes. Depending on the amount of staining and the desired level of whitening, it typically takes several weeks to get the desired results.

In-office teeth whitening: Results from this procedure, which is completed in a dental office, are immediate. It can require several visits, each lasting between 30 and 60 minutes. Your teeth are treated to a whitening agent while your gums are shielded. While the teeth are being whitened, a special light may be employed to accelerate the agent's action.

After teeth whitening, some patients could develop tooth sensitivity. This feeling is transient and goes away immediately after the bleaching procedure is finished, usually within a few days to a week.

You can have a whiter, brighter, and more self-assured smile with the help of teeth whitening, which is quite effective.

There are fewer conditions that require tooth extraction (removal) thanks to the many cutting-edge dental treatments and preventative measures that are currently accessible in dentistry. When a tooth does experience a problem, we make every effort to return it to its pre-problematic state. The final resort is to remove a tooth since we are aware that, if the tooth is not replaced, removal could result in serious, expensive dental and aesthetic issues.

The loss of a tooth can be extremely traumatic, and it is really terrible when it does. The most common causes of tooth extraction include trauma, gum disease, severe dental decay, fractures, accidents, and injuries. To prevent future dental and cosmetic issues, it is critical to replace any teeth that are lost due to trauma or that must be extracted.

After a tooth is removed, the jaw bone that supported it starts to deteriorate, which causes the teeth on either side to move or tip into the empty space left by the missing tooth. Due to the absence of an opposing tooth to bite on, the tooth above or below the open gap will also begin to shift in that direction. These movements could lead to issues like tooth decay, gum disease, accelerated wear on some teeth, and TMJ (jaw joint) issues. These issues and movements do not manifest right away, but they develop gradually, jeopardizing your ability to chew, the strength of your bite, and the attractiveness of your smile.


Removable bridges - In difficult dental cases where other replacement choices are not an option, this kind of bridge is a useful option for replacing one or more lost teeth. They are typically made of prosthetic teeth that are tooth-colored and metal clasps that attach to nearby healthy teeth. The least cosmetically acceptable option for restoring missing teeth is a removable bridge, but it is also the most cost-effective. This is due to the difficulty in totally concealing the metal clasps on the appliances.

Fixed bridges - This kind of bridge is often composed of porcelain or composite material, and it is securely glued (anchored) to a natural tooth next to the area where a tooth is missing. This sort of bridge has the advantages of being fixed (i.e., not detachable) and being highly strong. The drawback is that two healthy, natural teeth will need to be crowned (capped) in order to produce a fixed device that will hold the bridge in place.

Dentures - When the majority or all of the natural teeth in one dental arch are lost, this form of tooth replacement is used. Dentures are removable dental prosthetics that closely match the patient's natural teeth.

Implants - Are a fantastic technique to replace a missing tooth or teeth. They might also work well to support dentures that don't fit well. An artificial root known as a dental implant is inserted surgically into the jawbone to replace a missing tooth. On top of the implant, a false tooth is affixed, giving it the appearance and feel of a real tooth. The most cosmetically acceptable alternative for replacing missing teeth is an implant, which is also very stable and long-lasting.

Ask us if you need to get your missing teeth replaced and about your alternatives if you do. We will decide together which replacement choice is suitable for your unique situation. Prevention and early treatment are always less time-consuming and expensive than postponing care and letting a major issue fester.

Most of us have old fillings in our teeth, some of which may have been put in when we were kids. These fillings may now be dated, discolored, and unsightly, leaving us self-conscious when we speak, smile, or laugh. Old fillings are not only unsightly, but they could also be flawed. The margins (the area between the tooth and filling) of an old filling may ultimately open, allowing germs and food particles to enter and perhaps causing dental decay.

Your dentist can inspect your fillings and determine whether they need to be replaced if they are damaged. Additionally, you and your dentist can select which fillings should be replaced first and which replacement choices would be best for you if you simply want to replace unsightly fillings. Modern dental filling techniques and materials are readily available today that can quickly, painlessly, and affordably replace old, unsightly, or problematic fillings.


Composite (bonding) fillings - These fillings can be accurately matched to the shade of your natural teeth because they are tooth-colored. They are one of the greatest ways to enhance the health and appearance of your smile since they are especially well suited for usage in front teeth or other visible regions of teeth.

Crowns (Caps) - When a tooth is too badly injured to be restored with a filling or another type of restoration, several methods of restoration are employed. An complete tooth surface is covered by a crown, which returns the tooth's size and form to as it was originally. A crown, which can be constructed of gold, porcelain, or another tooth-colored material, reinforces and protects the remaining dental structure.

Inlays/Onlays - These fillings are custom-made restorations. They are created by a dental laboratory and positioned by a dentist. They can be made of composite resin, porcelain, or gold. Inlays and onlays are frequently used to conservatively treat teeth with large faulty or unsightly fillings, damage from decay or trauma, or the posterior chewing surfaces of teeth.

Porcelain veneers - Veneers are extremely thin porcelain shells in the shape of teeth that are handcrafted and affixed permanently to the front surface of teeth. They are most commonly used on the front teeth. They are an excellent way to correct teeth that are stained, pitted, chipped, misshapen, or just slightly misaligned. Veneers can also be used to cover unsightly gaps. Veneers seem natural, are extremely durable, and are stain-resistant. Because of this, veneers are a very popular option for repairing a smile that has been harmed by old, unsightly fillings.

As you can see, there are several choices for getting rid of worn-out, unsightly fillings. With the help of these procedures, you can improve the strength, naturalness, and durability of your smile.

Many individuals are unaware that periodontal disease, which destroys the bone and gum tissue that support our teeth, can have an impact on your general health. One of the most ubiquitous infections, often more prevalent than the common cold, is periodontal disease. Not only is periodontal disease the leading cause of tooth loss, but it can also have an impact on your overall health!

Gingivitis, the initial stage of periodontal disease, is a bacterial infection. It begins when a buildup of plaque (a colony of bacteria, food particles, and saliva) on the gums and teeth is NOT routinely removed. Toxins and acids produced by the bacteria in plaque irritate and infect the gums and ultimately kill the jaw bone that supports the teeth. If periodontal disease is not addressed, tooth loss may eventually result.

Numerous research have examined the relationship between serious medical disorders and gum disease. According to these research, patients who have periodontal disease are more likely to get systemic illnesses. They also imply that periodontal disease may make it possible for oral germs to enter the bloodstream, travel to important organs, and start new infections. According to research, bloodstream periodontal bacteria may:

  • Increase the risk of developing heart disease
  • Stroke risk is elevated
  • Deteriorate the health of those with diabetes or pulmonary conditions
  • A woman's chance of giving birth to a baby that is premature and underweight

The link between periodontal disease and systemic disorders is still poorly understood, researchers say, but there is enough evidence to suggest that infections in the mouth can cause havoc in other parts of the body.

We stress the significance of routine dental check-ups and cleanings, which include a periodontal evaluation, to ensure a healthy, disease-free mouth. A healthy diet and attentive house care can also aid in lowering oral bacteria and plaque.

Keeping in mind the mouth-body link Taking good care of your dental health could benefit your general health!

The deep grooves on the chewing surfaces of teeth are not reached by thorough brushing and flossing, despite the fact that they remove the majority of food particles and bacteria from these surfaces. These deep grooves, which are also known as pits and fissures, are where more than 75% of dental decay starts. To fit and clean the majority of these places, toothbrush bristles may be too big. In this context, sealants are crucial.

The chewing surfaces of molars, premolars, and any deep grooves or pits on teeth are covered and shielded by a thin plastic coating known as a sealant. Natural depressions and grooves in the teeth are covered by a protective, smooth layer known as a sealant, which makes it much easier to clean and helps maintain these regions free of decay.


Children and teenagers - As soon as the six-year molars (the first permanent back teeth) appear or any time throughout the cavity prone years of 6-16.

Infants - Baby teeth are occasionally sealed if the teeth have deep grooves and the child is cavity prone.

Adults - Tooth surfaces without decay that have deep grooves or depressions that are difficult to clean.

Your dentist or dental hygienist can apply sealants quickly and easily, and it only takes a few minutes each tooth. The sealant material is "painted" onto the tooth surface, where it solidifies and attaches to the teeth, after the chewing surfaces are roughened with an acid solution to aid the sealant adhere to the tooth. The sealant material may occasionally be made to harden with the use of a specific light.

Avoid chewing on ice cubes, hard candies, popcorn kernels, or any other hard or sticky items after a sealant application. At your routine dental checkup, your sealants will be inspected for wear and chipping.

Sealants are particularly successful at preventing tooth decay when used in conjunction with excellent home care, a healthy diet, and routine dental exams.

Everybody is susceptible to losing a tooth. Each year, more than 5 million teeth are removed! We might be able to save the tooth if we know how to address this urgent circumstance. When teeth are knocked out, they may be replaced if we respond swiftly yet calmly and do the following basic steps:

  1. Find the tooth, and DO NOT handle it by the roots—only by the crown, which is the chewing portion of the tooth.
  2. NEVER scrape the teeth or clean it with soap or chemicals. Rinse it gently with whole milk or your own saliva if it is covered in dirt or debris. If it's not possible, very gently clean it with water.
  3. Within 30 minutes, visit a dentist. The likelihood of successful reimplantation decreases with time.


The possibility that the tooth will survive and potentially last for many years increases with how quickly it is inserted back into the socket. So be ready, and keep in mind these easy ways to save a tooth that has been knocked out.


  • Using a mouthguard when participating in sports
  • Constantly buckle your seatbelt
  • Preventing fights
  • Do not chew on objects that are hard, such as ice, popcorn, hard bread, etc.
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